Pongalo Pongal
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Tamil Nadu’s Popular Harvest Thanksgiving Festival


The festival is an important one because much of the state relies on agriculture to generate an income, and the sun is necessary for good growth. Pongal actually means “boiling over” or “spilling over” in Tamil, signifying abundance and prosperity.


Where is it celebrated?

Pongal is widely celebrated in southern India, particularly in the state of Tamil Nadu.


How is it Celebrated?

On the first day (Bhogi Pongal), houses are thoroughly cleaned and decorated. The entrances are adorned with rangoli (kolam). You’ll be able to see colorful kolams in the streets everywhere, early in the morning! People buy new clothes and take oil baths. During the festival, families gather to feast and dance.


Popular attractions on the third and fourth day of Pongal used to be bull fights and bird fights, particularly Jallikattu in Madurai. However, there’s been a great push to outlaw such activities in recent years. Nevertheless, the bull fight in Madurai is still a major tourist attraction.


Jallikattu takes place in villages across the state as well.


What Rituals are Performed During Pongal?

On the main Pongal day (the second day, called Surya Pongal or Thai Pongal), the Sun God is worshiped.


This day corresponds with Makar Sankranti, the winter harvest festival celebrated throughout India, which marks the start of the sun’s six month journey north and warmer weather. People also gather in their homes to cook the Pongal dish. It’s offered to the Sun God during prayers, and later served for lunch.


The third day (Mattu Pongal), is dedicated to worshiping the farm animals, particularly cows — and they’re decorated for the occasion! Most farmers still use bulls, bullock carts, and traditional implements for plowing. Carnival-like celebrations take place in the streets. In Thanjavur, owners line their cows up for blessings at the Big Temple.


On the fourth day (Kanya Pongal), birds are worshiped. Balls of cooked rice are prepared and left out for birds to eat. People also thank family and friends for their support during the harvest. This day is commonly celebrated as a family day out.


What is the Pongal Dish?

The most important part of the Pongal festival is cooking the Pongal dish. Venpongal is made with rice mixed with moong daal, and cooked with ghee, cashew nuts, raisins, and spices. There’s also a sweet version of pongal called Sakkarai pongal. It’s made with jaggery (a type of unrefined sugar) instead of spices.


The pongal is cooked in clay pots, on stoves made with stones and wood used as fuel. When it starts to boil over, everyone shouts out “pongalo pongal”. Beautifully decorated clay pots are sold in markets all over Tamil Nadu in the lead up to the festival.



Pongal is celebrated at the same time every year, at the start of the Tamil month, Thai. The festival begins on either January 13 or 14 and it takes place over four days.

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The Significance of each of the days of the Pongal festival is as follows:

Bhogi Pandigai (January 14, 2019)

 falls on the last day of the month of Margazhi on the Tamil calendar. This occasion honors the rain god, Indra, for providing enough rain for a prosperous harvest. A special puja is performed before the harvest. Farmers worship the sun and earth by anointing their implements with sandalwood paste. The day is also devoted to cleaning the house and collecting unwanted items, which are then disposed of in a fire made with wood and dried cow dung. This is symbolic of getting rid of bad habits, vices, and attachments. People paint their homes and decorate the entrance with kolam (rangoli).


Surya Pongal/Thai Pongal (January 15, 2019)

falls on the first day of the month of Thai on the Tamil calendar. It corresponds with Makar Sankranti, the winter harvest festival celebrated throughout India, which marks the start of the sun’s six month journey north (the Uttarayanam period) and warmer weather. This occasion honors the sun god, Surya, for providing enough warmth and energy for a prosperous harvest. Festivities feature the preparation of the Pongal dish, which is offered to the sun and shared with loved ones. It’s made, facing the rising sun to the east, by boiling the first rice of the season with milk and sugar. The highlight is when the dish spills over during cooking, signifying abundance.


Mattu Pongal (January 16, 2019)

is dedicated to the worship of cows, which provide essential help to farmers in the fields and milk to drink. The cows are bathed and decorated with garlands, turmeric water, and paint on their horns. They’re given a special feast (including the Pongal dish) and allowed to rest for the day. The traditional sport of jallikattu (a type of bull fighting) is an integral part of the festival and takes place in villages across Tamil Nadu. However, these days it’s become quite contentious due to disapproval from animal rights activists, who want it to be banned.


Katya Pongal (January 17, 2019)

The feeding of birds (especially crows) is considered to be auspicious on this day. Women give the birds special colored rice balls in a ritual called Kaka Pudi Kannu Pudi, and they pray for the well-being of their brothers. This day is also known as Kaanum Pongal. “Kaanum” means to see, and it’s a fun day that’s celebrated by going out with friends and relatives.


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